ADOPT A FLAMINGO

Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family
Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually
3–5 feet in height living in large flocks around aquatic
areas. The bird is found in both the Western and Eastern
Hemispheres and is more numerous in the latter. There
are four species in the Americas while two exist in the
Old World.

Diet

Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, and the large rough-surfaced tongue. Flamingos are also noted for balancing themselves on one leg while standing and feeding. Flamingos also stand on one leg when sleeping.

Color

The young mice hatch with white plumage, but the feathers of a flamingo in adulthood range from light pink to bright red, due to carotenoids obtained from their food supply. A flamingo that is well fed and healthy is vibrantly colored. The pinker a flamingo is, the more desirable it is as a mate. A white or pale flamingo, however, is usually unhealthy or suffering from a lack of food. Notable exceptions are the flamingos in captivity, many of which turned a pale pink as they are not fed foods containing sufficient amounts of carotene. This is changing as more zoos begin to add shrimp and other supplements to the diets of their flamingos. All flamingos have 12 black flight feathers in each wing.

Feeding

Flamingos produce a “milk” like pigeon milk due to the action of a hormone called prolactin (see Columbidae). It contains more fat and less protein than the latter does, and it is produced in glands lining the whole of the upper digestive tract, not just the crop. Both parents nurse their chick, and young flamingos feed on this milk, which also contains red and white blood cells, for about two months until their bills are developed enough to filter feed.

One-legged Pose

Flamingos are known to stand on one leg whilst sleeping. This is done in order to minimize body heat escaping into the water in which their feet are submerged.

Classification

The identity of the closest relatives of the flamingos has long been somewhat mysterious. Traditionally, the long-legged waders of the Ciconiiformes, a most likely paraphyletic assemblage, have been considered the flamingo's closest relatives and the family was included in the order. Usually the spoonbills and ibises of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order. Nevertheless, relationships to the Anseriformes were considered as well. To reflect the uncertainty about this matter, flamingos began to be placed in their own order later on. Some scientists proposed flamingos as Charadriiformes most closely related to the stilts and avocets, Recurvirostridrae.

In recent years, DNA-studies have had unsuspected results: Sibley & Monroe placed flamingos within their huge Ciconiiformes. More recently, however, time and time again it has been the grebes Podicipedidae rather then long-legged waders, ducks or stilts that were indicated as the closest relatives of flamingos in DNA-studies. Whether the two families will be placed in a order together or retained as different orders is uncertain at the moment, however.

In a 2005 study that is likely to turn avian systematics upside down once again, the Neoaves, consisting of all living birds except the ratites, tinamous, waterfowl and Galliformes, were shown to be divided into two subgroups of uneven size. The first and smallest, Metaves contains flamingos and grebes,alongside the hoatzin, pigeons, sandgrouse, the paraphyletic Caprimulgiformes, the Apodiformes, tropic birds, mesites, sunbittern and kagu. Interestingly, most of these groups have traditionally been difficult to place on the family tree of birds. According to this study, all other birds belong to the second subgroup of Neoaves, the Coronaves.

All of this shows that the exact placement of flamingos is still controversial.

Extinct species

Flamingos were native to Australia 20 million years ago.

Chilean Flamingo

The Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is a large species (110-130 cm) closely related to Caribbean Flamingo and Greater Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. This article follows the treatment in Ibis (2002) 144 707-710.  It occurs in temperate South America. Like all flamingos it lays a single chalky white egg on a mud mound.  The plumage is pinker than the slightly larger Greater Flamingo, but less so than Caribbean Flamingo. It can be differentiated from these species by its greyish legs with pink "knees", and also by the larger amount of black on the bill (more than half).

Lesser Flamingo

The Lesser Flamingo (Phoenicopterus minor) is a species in the flamingo family of birds which occurs in Africa (principally in the Great Rift Valley), across to northwest India. It is the smallest and most numerous flamingo, probably numbering up to a million individual birds.  Like all flamingos it lays a single chalky white egg on a mud mound. Most of the plumage is pinkish white.  Its clearest difference from Greater Flamingo, the only other Old World species, is the much more extensive black on the bill. Size is less helpful unless the species are together, since the sexes of each species are also different in height.  This species feeds exclusively on the alga Spirulina plantensis, which occurs only in very alkaline lakes. Their deep bill is specialised for tiny food items.  The population in the two key east African lakes, Nakuru and Bogoria, have been adversely affected in recent years by suspected heavy metal poisoning.

James's Flamingo

The James's Flamingo (Phoenicopterus jamesi), also known as the Puna Flamingo, is a South American flamingo. It breeds on the high Andean plateaus of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina. It is related to the Chilean Flamingo and the Andean Flamingo.  It is a small and delicate flamingo, approximately 3 feet in height. Its plumage is pale pink, with bright carmine streaks around the neck and on the back. When perched a small amount of black can be seen in the wings. There is bright red skin around the eye. The legs are brick-red and the bill is bright yellow with a black tip. Immature birds are greyish.  James's Flamingo is similar to other South American flamingoes, but the Chilean Flamingo is pinker, with a paler and longer bill, and the Andean Flamingo is larger with more black in the wings and bill, and yellow legs.

Andean Flamingo
 
The Andean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus) is a bird species in the Flamingo family restricted to the Chilean Andes. It is closely related to James's Flamingo.  Like all flamingos it lays a single chalky white egg on a mud mound. Its population in Northern Chile was badly hit by drought, which cause the breeding lagoon areas to dry up, either preventing nest building, or allowing predation especially from the Culpeo Fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus.  Andean Flamingos, like all the group, feed by filtering small items from water with their specialised bills. They have a deep, narrow lower mandible, which allows them to eat small foods such as diatoms, in contrast to the wider bill of larger species, which take bigger prey items.  Most of the plumage is pinkish white. The Andean Flamingo is the only species that has yellow legs and feet.
 
Greater Flamingo

The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread species of the Flamingo family. It is found in parts of Africa, southwest Asia (including Turkey), southern Asia (coastal regions of India) and southern Europe (including Spain, Portugal, and the Camargue region of France). Some populations are short distance migrants.  This is a large species, averaging 120-140cm tall, and is closely related to the Caribbean Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. This article follows the treatment in Ibis (2002) 144, 707-710.  Like all flamingos, this species lays a single chalky-white egg on a mud mound.  Most of the plumage is pinkish-white, but the wing coverts are red and the primary and secondary flight feathers are black.  The bill is pink with a restricted black tip, and the legs are entirely pink. The call is a goose-like honking.

Caribbean Flamingo

The Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the Greater Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. This article follows the treatment in Ibis (2002) 144 707-710.  It breeds in the Galapagos Islands, coastal Colombia and Venezuela and nearby islands, the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, and in the northern Caribbean in the Bahamas, Hispaniola, Cuba and Turks and Caicos. Most sightings in southern Florida are usually considered to be escapees, although at least one bird banded as a chick in the Yucatán Peninsula has been sighted in Everglades National Park, and others may be genuine wanderers from Cuba.  The habitat is similar to that of its relatives, including saline lagoons, mudflats and shallow brackish coastal or inland lakes. Like all flamingos, it lays a single chalky white egg on a mud mound.  The Caribbean Flamingo is 120–140 cm in length; males weigh 2.8 kg and females 2.2 kg. Most of the plumage is pink, giving rise to its earlier name of Rosy Flamingo and differentiating adults from the much paler European species. The wing coverts are red, and the primary and secondary flight feathers are black. It is the only flamingo which naturally occurs in North America.  The bill is pink with a restricted black tip, and the legs are entirely pink. The call is a goose-like honking.
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